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The Research Proves it

“The mini-trampoline (rebounder) provides a convenient form of exercise with a major advantage being its apparent low level of trauma to the skeletal muscle system.”
Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 1990:10;401-408

“The findings indicate that exercise on a miniature trampoline (rebounder) may provide a safe, adequate indoor exercise for normal and many cardiac patients of varied ages, if guidelines concerning rate or stepping and height of knee lifts are adhered to.”
Journal of Medical Science for Sport and Exercise

“…for similar levels of heart rate and oxygen consumption, the magnitude of the biomechanical stimuli is greater with jumping on a trampoline than with running on a treadmill, a finding that might help identify acceleration parameters needed for the design of remedial procedures to avert deconditioning in persons exposed to weightlessness.”
N.A.S.A. Journal of Applied Physiology

Rebounding Research Archive

DR. ROTA: Dr. Gruenn, you’re a physician, practicing preventive medicine. You have an expertise in detoxification. Can you share with us the benefits of Bouncercising?

DR. GRUENN: Bouncercising has a ton of benefits. It basically works positively on every system in every cell of the body. For example, the very important lymph system – and that’s unique about Bouncercising. It basically works and massage the lymph system by basically three forces. One is gravity, which pulls you down. The other is acceleration when you go up, and then you decelerate again as you go down. And this effect positively affects the body.

DR. ROTA: So then the release of toxins from the cell then, that we normally see in metabolism, it’s the lymphatic system – the lymph system that basically picks up these toxins and can stagnate unless it’s circulated.

DR. GRUENN: Let me just say a word to the lymph system because it is so important. It’s a system that runs parallel to the veins from the periphery of the body to the heart, and it has no pump. So how does lymph move? It moves by gravity. So if you put someone on the rebounder, and you work up and down, up and down – increase gravity – for a split second you are in space, no gravity – you massage the lymph system. And that moves the lymph, which then nurtures the cells better and pulls toxins away from the cells.

DR. ROTA: Can you connect the Freedom Spring System to the immune system?

DR. GRUENN: Yes, we talked about lymph flow. In the lymph system, the white blood cells get in contact with bacteria. The white blood cells then have a certain surveillance function for the body, for example, to pick up cancer cells. The lymph flow is increased, you will have a better effectiveness of your white blood cells and of your immune system.

DR. ROTA: We have also heard that exercising on the rebounder with the upper body system – which normally you pump and move the muscles, they get sore afterwards. I haven’t found the soreness. Would you say the same thing would apply?

DR. GRUENN: Yes, if you workout intensely, you produce lactic acids amongst others. And lactic acids in your tissue and your connective tissue ultimately creates inflammation and burns. If the lymph flow is accelerated, it takes the lactic acid away, which then is broken down in the liver, and you have less muscle soreness.
DR. ROTA: So then also we could apply – let’s say – to the joint deteriorations, the arthritises and things of that nature, the same principle.

DR. GRUENN: Yes, very important. Well, think about pounding the asphalt. You know, if you’re about 40, you probably know it does hurt your joints. And it does hurt your joints. It promotes degenerative joint disease basically. If you rebound, the movement is much, much smoother. You will have an absorption of all these negative forces and that will then protect the joints.

DR. ROTA: We have also heard about osteoporosis. Osteoporosis – the various organizations would state now that exercise facilitates a halt of osteoporosis. How do we apply that to rebounding?

DR. GRUENN: That’s a huge, huge topic. Because osteoporosis bucks a big percentage of the population because we are not exercising as much as we used to. And it’s true for men, too. Everyone talks about women, but it’s a huge issue for men, which mostly don’t get tested, so they don’t know about it. Why do we get osteoporosis? Because we don’t exercise. What prevents osteoporosis? Well, stress on the bones. It’s just like you would build a muscle. When you exercise, you build bones. And the main effect is gravity. When you accelerate, the gravity has a positive tension on the bones. Compared with running, where you pound the joints with every move, that’s not the effect with the rebounders.

DR. ROTA: We’ve heard about the importance of being fit. Can you describe the components of being physically fit?

DR. GRUENN: If you think about total fitness, it has various parts. There is an aerobic part, which you just get by working out. There is a muscle part – a muscle-building part which you get by rebounding and by using the various attachments which work your muscles. So if you think just about the gravity effect on your muscles, it’s like every one of your muscles would have a weight attached to it. Because whenever you come down, you have increased gravitational pull, and that puts an increased stress on your muscles. And then we talked already about the lymph system, how important it is. And then obviously it aids in staying flexible. And that is so important, especially as we grow older.

DR. ROTA: Thank you for being with us today and sharing some of your thoughts on that.

DR. GRUENN: Thank you.

It’s crazy, but it works,” said C. E. (Pat) Mueller, director of recreational sports at the University of Minnesota for thirty years. “I’ve seen a lot of sports fads come and go,” said Mueller, an associate professor with a master’s degree in physical education. “But this thing is so phenomenal – It’s the exercise of the future. Rebounding has been around for over fifty years. What’s new is our understanding of rebound exercise as a process of gravitational force overloading.”
Professor Pat Mueller is the one who brought my attention to the NASA Report published in the Journal of Applied Physiology 49(5): 881-887, 1980, which confirms many of the statements previously made in the first printing of “The Miracles of Rebound Exercise”. The research was performed by the Bio mechanical Research Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, in cooperation with the Wenner-Gren Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

The four scientists, A. Bhattacherya, E. P. McCutcheon, E. Shavartz, and J. E. Greenleaf, secured the assistance of eight young men between the ages of 19 and 26, requiring each to walk, jog and run on a treadmill operated at four different speeds, and then jump on a standard-sized trampoline at four different heights in order to compare the difference between the two modes of exercise. Although treadmill running had been studied many times before, the scientists found that “. . . measurements of the necessary variables have not been reported previously for trampoline exercise.” A Summary of that study is found in the back of this book, but there are a few quotes that seem to fit here.

“. . . for similar levels of heart rate and oxygen consumption, the magnitude of the bio mechanical stimuli is greater with jumping on a trampoline than with running, a finding that might help identify acceleration parameters needed for the design of remedial procedures to avert deconditioning in persons exposed to weightlessness.”

“The external work output at equivalent levels of oxygen uptake were significantly greater while trampolining than running. The greatest difference was about 68%.” Now, if you had access to a gasoline that was 68% more efficient than the gasoline you are using in your automobile right now at the same price, wouldn’t you take advantage of it? Well, we don’t have the gasoline, but it does appear that we do have the exercise.

It is fitting that NASA should explore trampolining, or, as we know it now, rebound exercise, because they had a real need for an exercise breakthrough. They found that when the astronauts were sent into space, in as little as fourteen days they lost as much as 15% of their bone and muscle mass. The space rats didn’t do as well. In seven days, their loss was as much as 40%.

It appears that the cells of the body have a greater ability to adjust to their environment than we give them credit for. Without gravity, the cells of the bones and muscles took it upon themselves to adjust. Strong bones are not necessary in a zero gravity environment, so the osteocytes (bone cells) become osteoclasts and began to dissolve bone mineral from the bones.(Medical doctors know that when bones are stressed, the bone cells perform osteoblastic activity by absorbing bone mineral and depositing it in the bones where they are being stressed.)

Did NASA find their space age exercise? It appears so, Rebounding appears to be a way of “. . .averting the deconditioning that occurs during the immobilization of bed rest of space flight, due to a lack of gravireceptor stimulation(in addition to other factors). ” [Recovering from space flight]”. . .requires an acceleration profile that can be delivered at a relatively low metabolic cost.” Their studies pointed out that”While trampolining, as long as the G-force remained below4-G’s, the ratio of oxygen consumption compared to biomechanical conditioning was sometimes more than twice as efficient as treadmill running.”

It is important to note that although this experiment was performed on a trampoline where the participants were able to develop a G-force as high as 8-G’s, the efficient use of energy was below 4-G’s.That brings up two immediate questions. 1) What is the maximum G-force that can be developed on a rebounder? and2) How much G-force can an average person handle? In other words, is rebounding really safe for the normal person? We need to call in the United States Air Force to answer that question. USAF pilots have been pulling multi-G’s ever since it’s existence.

N.A.S.A. CONFIRMS IT!

Rebound exercise is The most efficient, effective form of exercise yet devised by man.”

“. . . for similar levels of heart rate and oxygen consumption,the magnitude of the bio mechanical stimuli is greater with jumping on a trampoline than with running, a finding that might help identify acceleration parameters needed for the design of remedial procedures to avert deconditioning in persons exposed to weightlessness.”
The above statement is one of several made in a scientific study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology 49(5):881-887, 1980, which confirms many of the statements previously made in the “Miracles of Rebound Exercise”. The research was performed by the Bio mechanical Research Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field,California, in cooperation with the Wenner-Gren Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

The four scientists, A. Bhattacharya, E.P. McCutcheon, E.Shvartz, and J.E. Greenleaf, secured the assistance of eight young men between the ages of 19 and 26 to each walk, jog,and run on a treadmill which was operated at four different speeds and then jump on a standard sized trampoline at four different heights to compare the difference between the two modes of exercise. Although treadmill running had been studied many times before, the scientists found that “. . . measurements of the necessary variables have not been reported previously for trampoline exercise.”

The trampoline testing was conducted at least one week after the treadmill testing.

The six measurements which were taken on all eight of the subjects were:

1. A pulse before exercising.
2. A pulse immediately after exercising.
3. The amount of oxygen consumed while exercising.
4. The amount of G-force experienced at the ankle while exercising.
5. The amount of G-force experienced at the lower-back while exercising.
6. The amount of G-force experienced at the forehead while exercising.

The pulse was obtained by a battery-powered electro-cardiographic unit taped to the subject’s body which transmitted its signals to a custom-designed receiver which in turn recorded the information by electronically writing it on a chart.

The oxygen consumption was measured with a K-meter which the subject carried on his back.

The G-force experienced by the ankle, back and forehead of each of the university students was measured by small sensitive accelerometers which were placed in plexiglass holders that were taped to the ankle, the small of the back, and the forehead.

After a thorough medical examination, the healthy students were issued a pair of shorts and new Nike running shoes to standardize the conditions to be measured. They were given familiarization sessions on laboratory procedures, treadmill running and trampoline jumping to ensure the exercise techniques would be the same. Each student then walked or ran four different speeds on the treadmill with a five to ten minute rest period between runs while the scientist recorded their statistics and compared them with previous treadmill studies for accuracy.

A week later, these same athletes returned to bounce on a trampoline at four different heights with a 5 to 10 minute rest period in between exercise sessions. Again the scientists recorded their statistics, only this time, they had no previous studies to compare them to. Since trampolining had not been previously studied, the only studies available were the preliminary studies which began in August of 1977 on passive restrained humans and animals exposed to increasing frequency and amplitude of vibration forces designed to increase heart rate and metabolic activity. “These responses measured by whole-body vibration resemble those during mild exercise and suggest that perhaps body vibration could be used in place of exercise.”

The results of this study were startling to the scientists but quite frankly, were expected by us at the “Institute”. Following are some of the results revealed by this team of scientists from NASA:

1. The G-force measured at the ankle was always more than twice the G-force measured at the back and forehead while running on a treadmill.
This helps to explain shin splints and knee problems,especially when the natural shock absorbing system of the body becomes so fatigued that it doesn’t do its job correctly, thus throwing added unexpected forces on already tired muscles,ligaments and tendons, forcing them beyond the point of rupture.

2. While jumping on a trampoline, the G-force was almost the same at all three points, (ankle, back, forehead) and well below the rupture threshold of a normal healthy individual.
This makes it possible to exercise the entire body knowing that there is no undue pressure applied to part of the body such as the feet, ankles, and legs, and at the same time knowing that each part of the body is receiving the necessary environmental stresses it needs to become stronger cell by cell.

3. The external work output at equivalent levels of oxygen uptake were significantly greater while trampolining than running. The greatest difference was about 68%.

The efficient use of the vertical forces of acceleration and deceleration to produce internal loading by directly opposing the gravitational pull develops more bio mechanical work with less energy expended, thus less oxygen used and less demand placed on the heart.

4. While trampolining, as long as the G-force remained below 4-G’s, the ratio of oxygen consumption compared to bio mechanical conditioning was sometimes more than twice as efficient as treadmill running.
It is important to note that although this experiment was performed on a trampoline where the participants were able to develop a G-force as high as 8-G’s, the efficient use of energy was below 4-G’s. People involved in rebound exercise on rebound units have been measured only as high as 3.5-G’s,so that any activity on a rebound unit is more efficient than treadmill running at any speed.

5. With the G-force the same as or greater than 4-G’s ” . . there was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake between the two regimens”.

Even when a person is able to develop a force on the trampoline of more than 4-G’s, although it is no more efficient as far as oxygen consumption than running, it is still much better on the lower extremities because the cells are still below their rupture threshold providing a safe way to exercise.

6. ” . . averting the deconditioning that occurs during the immobilization of bed rest or space flight, due to a lack of gravireceptor stimulation (in addition to other factors), requires an acceleration profile that can be delivered at a relatively low metabolic cost. . .for equivalent metabolic cost, and acceleration profile from jumping will provide greater stimulito gravireceptors.”

This statement verifies the fact that rebound exercise is an excellent exercise for our senior citizens, those physically handicapped, those who are recuperating from an accident or injury, or anyone else who needs exercise but is hampered by a pre-existing physical condition.

Colleen McGlone, B.S., Len Kravitz, Ph.D.,
and Jeffrey M. Janot, Ph.D.

Rebounding is a form of aerobic exercise that emerged nearly 50 years ago (1). A modern-day version of rebounding may now be seen in fitness clubs throughout the United States. This form of group-led exercise appears to provide an adequate stimulus for improving and maintaining cardiovascular fitness, and it may also be a good choice of exercise for clients needing a low-impact option. Rebounding involves performing basic physical movements, similar to traditional aerobic classes, on a mini-trampoline device referred to as a rebounder.

Although rebounding is not new to the fitness world, it has changed since its debut. It now incorporates more contemporary arm and leg choreography to music, as well as a different rebounding performance style. Early rebounding technique can be characterized as running and bouncing movements that recoil upward from the rebounder. The present-day rebounding method involves less upward motion and more of a downward push of the legs onto the rebounder. This pushing movement limits the amount of upward propulsion, while increasing the amount of physical work being performed by the legs. The upper-body limbs perform various bilateral and unilateral movements, such as flexion and extension of the arm and forearm in the sagittal, horizontal, and frontal planes.

The physiological benefits of this contemporary rebounding program are not known. In addition, a comparison of rebounding with other modes of exercise has not been investigated. Therefore, we assessed the cardiovascular responses of rebounding and treadmill exercise performed at the same level of perceived exertion.

Our Project
A group of 10 trained men and women who were participating in 30 minutes or more of aerobic activity, 3 times a week, volunteered (see Table 1). (Data sponsored in part by a grant from QVC. Inc.)

Method of Exercise Testing
Two different exercise sessions were used. Participants learned the proper techniques of each movement to be performed on the rebounder. All instruction was provided and demonstrated by a certified fitness professional, who taught subjects the routine and led them during the rebounding session. This routine incorporated several different movements including basic double-leg rebounding with hands on the hips, 90° bent-arm chest flies with double-leg rebounding, military presses with double-leg rebounding, jumping jacks, double twists, and alternating y 1||| stride moves. This familiarization period continued until each exerciser was comfortable performing the movements. The participant was then given a 10-minute rest period before beginning the exercise sessions. During this period the Borg’s Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale was reviewed (3).

Table 1. Physical Characteristics of Participants*
Men Women
Age (yr) 28.2 ± 11.3 24.0 ±3.9
Height (cm) 175.5 ± 4.2 169.0 ±5.4
Weight (kg) 73.9 ± 10.3 60.1 ± 8.2
Body Composition (BF) 13.6 ± 4.6 18.1 ±2.9
HRmax (BPM) 190.6 ± 11.7 194.8 ±3.8
VO 2max (ml(Kg’nm)-1) 52.4 ± 9.8 45.3 ±2.8
* Values are means ± standard deviation

The first exercise bout involved rebounding for a period of 10 minutes following the standardized instruction format led by the certified instructor. This consisted of performing each of the rebounding moves described above for 16 repetitions, and continually rotating through the sequence for the length of the session. The music accompaniment was set at 126 beats per minute (BPM). This session was followed by a 10-minute seated rest period before beginning the second 10-minute exercise bout. To best equate the starting physiological parameters of exercise for both bouts, the participants remained resting until oxygen consumption percentage for participants was 18 for the female participants values of the first trial were attained. The second bout consisted of a self-paced treadmill-jogging period that participants were classified as being in the Superior” category matched each subject’s rebounding RPE. The treadmill was set at a 3% grade and the subjects self-selected the speed in order to effectively match the same level or intensity perceived on the rebounder. The treadmill exercise was also accompanied by music set at 126 BPM.

Oxygen consumption (VO2), Ventilation (VE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured continuously and averaged across every 15 seconds throughout the sessions. Heart rate (HR) was taken every 30 seconds and then averaged. RPE on the rebounder was measured every 3 minutes and then averaged for the session.

What We Found
The participants in this study had body fat percentages below established norms (2). The average body fat percentage for participants was 18% for the female participants and 13.6% for the male participants. VO2max values for all participants were classified as being in the “Superior” category based on age and gender (2) (see Table 1).

Cardiovascular and Caloric Expenditure
The data showed comparable cardiovascular results between and treadmill exercise at the same level of perceived exertion (see TabIe 2). There was no significant difference in VO2 and HR between the rebounder and the treadmill. The heart rate response or subjects averaged 81% or HRmax for rebounding and 82% or HRmax for treadmill exercise. The oxygen consumption response of subjects averaged 63% of VO2max reserve for rebounding and 66% of V02maxR for treadmill. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure between the rebounder and the treadmill. Rebounding yielded an average of 9.45 ± 1.75 Kcals/min as compared to 10.07 ± 3.0 Kcals/min on the treadmill.

Discussion
The results indicate that V02, HR, and energy expenditure were all very comparable between the two exercise modalities. Rebounding exercise meets the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Guidelines (4) in several categories, notably that it produced HR intensities between 55% and 90% of maximal HR, which are necessary for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. Rebounding exercise attained this recommendation (81 of HRmax), indicating that improvement and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness can be achieved with rebounding exercise. ACSM recommends aVO^ intensity of 40 to 85 of maximum oxygen uptake reserve (VO2maxR) for cardiorespiratory improvement, which rebounding exercise also produced (63% ofVO2maxR).
The kilocalorie expenditure averaged 9.45 Kcals/min, which was similar to the treadmill energy expenditure of 10 Kcals/min. ACSM (4) recommends a target range of 150 to 400 Kcals of energy expenditure per day in physical activity for overall health benefits. Therefore, if rebounding were performed for a minimum of 16 minutes it would meet the lower threshold of this recommendation.

A desirable weight-loss program usually includes a caloric restriction component in addition to an exercise component. ACSM (4) recommends participation in an exercise program that promotes a daily caloric expenditure of more than 300 Kcals. This suggests that rebounding for 32 minutes or more will meet this recommendation for most individuals.

The similarity in caloric expenditure between rebounding and treadmill exercise can be explained by the use of RPE as an exercise intensity control variable between the two modes of exercise. These data suggest that participants were able to reproduce a similar exercise intensity on the treadmill compared with rebounding exercise by using only a subjective rating of their physical effort. This is worth noting because of the belief that RPE may be mode-specific, meaning that it may be difficult for the exercising individual to march a given exercise intensity between different exercise modes. In light of this finding, rebounding exercise appears to elicit a similar caloric expenditure at a matched RPE as treadmill exercise, without exposing individuals to impact forces experienced on the treadmill.

It has been estimated that 80% of aerobic-related injuries are caused by overuse and microtrauma associated with the repetitive impact forces inherent in most aerobic techniques (5). Rebounding may help to reduce injuries commonly related to other forms of exercise such as jogging. One benefit of rebounding is that the rebounder absorbs and decreases the amount of impact sustained by the joints. This decreased force may be beneficial in preventing overuse injuries such as shin-splints and tendonitis caused by repetitive force, as well as helping to reduce the possibility of incurring an exercise-related stress fracture. Thus, rebounding may be an appropriate alternative for individuals who have joint problems or have been told to avoid high-impact activities.

One final observation of rebounding exercise pertains to the choice of movements. Although rebounding choreography tends to use some single-leg impact moves such as running and step kicks, the highly fit participants in this project found those moves to be somewhat awkward to perform. Therefore, acknowledging the limitations of this project with 10 highly fit subjects, it still seems prudent to recommend choreography on the rebounder that involves predominantly a double-leg impact style.

Implementation
Rebounding can readily be incorporated into a fitness routine for most physically active people. It may be used as an alternative to regular workouts and may be beneficial in attracting clients who might choose not to otherwise participate in aerobic classes. It may also be useful when attempting to avoid overuse injuries or when combating exercise boredom. Many movements can be added to make the exercise more sport-specific. For example, side-to-side hops mimic movements found in skiing. Another option would be to include rebounding in circuit training or cross- training programs.

Table 2. Summary of Results*
Treadmill Rebounding
VO2 (ml(Kg-minr)-1) 30.24 ± 5.6 28.73 ± 4.3
HR (BPM) 157.5 ± 25.5 155.3 ± 26.2
VE(L/min) 46.09 ± 15.3 47.19 ± 10.9
RER (VCO./VO^ .92 ± 0.4 .93 ± .05
Energy Expenditure 10.07 ± 3.0 9.45 ± 1.8
(kcal/min)
* Values tire means ± standard deviation

Benefits
Benefits of rebounding include increased cardiorespiratory fitness levels, caloric expenditure, and possibly improved kinesthetic awareness. Rebounding is a low-impact physical activity. This low-impact benefit may be beneficial in reducing overuse injuries, which are often associated with other types or exercise such as logging and running.

Condensed Version and Bottom Line
This study indicates that rebounding may be considered a good exercise mode for improving aerobic fitness and for inclusion in weight management programs. It may also be an alternative for people who may need to stay away from traditionally high-impact activities such as running and other styles of impact aerobics. This fitness alternative can be easily worked into the fitness routines of clients with varying fitness levels and abilities. For those looking for a nontraditional way to spice up a routine, rebounding may be the answer.

Rebounding program and equipment resources
Colleen A. McGlmie, B.S., is currently pursuing an M.S. in Exercise Science and. Sports Administration at the University of New Mexico. Her research interests include modality testing/comparison and muscular strength and conditioning. She is ACSM Health/Fitness Instructor, and NSCA Physical Trainer certified. Len Kravitz, Ph.D., has a doctorate in health promotion and exercise science. He is an Assistant Professor and Researcher at the University of New Mexico, where he serves as the Coordinator of Exercise Science. Kravitz was recently awarded the Canadian Fitness Professionals “International Presenter of the Year” award.
Jeffrey M. Janot, Ph.D., EPC, is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Physiology in the Department of Athletics at South Dakota State University. Currently, his research focuses on the cardiovascular responses during exercise in healthy and clinical populations, body composition in special populations, and fitness product testing. Dr. Janot is also ACSM Exercise Specialist® certified and Exercise Physiologist certified from the American Society of Exercise Physiologists.
References 1. Walker, M. Jumping for Health. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing
Group, 1989.
2. Heyward, V.H. Advanced Fitness Assessment d^ Exercise Prescription. 3rd edition. Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics, 1998.
3. Borg, G. Perceived exertion: A note on history and methods. Medicine ^y
Science in Sports e^r Exercise^ 6(2):90-93, 1983.
4. Balady, G.J., K.A. Berra, L.A. Golding, et al. ACSM’S Guidelines for
Exercise Testing and Prescription, 6th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams
& Wilkins, 2000.
5. Mutoh, Y., S. Sawai, Y. Takanashi, et al. Aerobic dance injuries among
instructors and students. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 16(2):81~83,
1988.

It seems like every book on exercise has one or two chapters on injury, everything from dog bites to shin splints. This is probably what prompted Craig McQueen, M.D., to ask A. W. Daniels, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, Material Science and Engineering and Orthopedic Surgery of the University of Utah to analyze the comparison of the impact loads transmitted by rebounding and more conventional exercise surfaces.

In this report, they compared rebounding to jogging. Briefly, they accomplished the following:

Determined the approximate spring constant of the rebounder by measuring the deflection of the surface when various persons of known weight stood on it. It was found that the constant was 770 lb/ft.
Calculated the length of time of impulse load contact for a “typical” 165 lb. person running on a rebounder, and on a wooden board track where the constant was 33,000 Lb./ft. The time of contact is inversely proportional to the impact force. The calculated times of contact were .13 seconds for the rebounder and .02 seconds on the wooden board track.

Since .02 is only about 15% of the .13, the maximum impact force on the rebounder would be only 1/6th that of the wooden board track.

One of the major problems runners have is structural damage caused by the constant pounding of the skeleton against unforgiving surfaces.

Peter Daetwiler of Hong Kong, an executive of a hotel chain, was a runner who needed weekly cortisone shots in his knee to combat the pain and swelling before he was turned on to rebound exercise. He was then able to maintain his level of cardiovascular endurance in the safety and convenience of his home in less time, and without the expensive and painful medication.

“I know how to make rebound exercise even better,” I heard one day when I was at the National Health Federation Convention, in Anaheim, California. The voice belonged to Harry Sneider, fitness coach of Ambassador College, in Pasadena, California.

“If you can improve on rebound exercise, you have my undivided attention,” I remember saying. That was the beginning of Aerobic Resistive Rebounding, a simple concept of putting light weights in the hands and running, jumping or bouncing on a rebounder while moving the weights in organized motions. Since Harry Sneider’s background was that of training body builders and training athletes for Olympic competition, he felt rebounding would fit in his system of honing and fine-tuning his athletes. The cellular, or whole-body exercise concept was appealing to him, but he wasn’t going to turn his back on resistance training. It took a little ingenuity and 1, 2, and 3 pound sand bags to combine the two exercise methods. This is one case where the sum of the two parts is greater than the parts.

Resistive, on isotonic exercise, involves muscle contraction under opposition with movement. Weight lifting is a good example of organized resistive exercise. Who can argue with success? I am not about to argue with Mr. Universe or Jack Lalanne, but when Dr. Sneider began to introduce rebound exercise to them, they too caught on to the fun and easy benefits.

Engineers Study Rebound Exercise

One way exercise is measured is by the amount of work preformed, or accomplished. So I turned the problem over to an engineer friend of mine. I introduced him to Harry and Sarah Sneider’s Olympic Trainer, an exercise package consisting of three sets of hand-held weights, 1, 2, and 3 pound sandbags to be used in conjunction with rebounding. The participant goes through an organized series of upper body movements while walking, jumping or running on a rebounder. His conclusions are simple but revealing. He has been kind enough to take us through easy-to-understand logical steps to an amazing conclusion. You’ll enjoy the step by step logic.

Step 1. If one stands still on the rebounder and holds a one pound weight in each hand, it will exert one pound pressure on each arm, a total of two pounds on the trunk and legs.

See? that’s easy to understand. If you stand on a bathroom scales and somebody hands you two pounds of butter, the scales will add two pounds to your weight.

Step 2. If one jumps on a rebounder creating a 2 G force, the weight will create 2 pounds of force at the bottom of the bounce on each arm; a total of \ pounds on the trunk and legs.
Your weight is doubled when you bounce high enough to create 2 Gs. Even your clothes weigh twice as much. Even the weights in your hands weigh twice as much.

Step 3. If one creates the bounce by rhythmically moving the weights in the hands forcefully up and down, the G force is at least doubled again at the bottom of the bounce and 1 G of deceleration at the top of the bounce. This subjects each arm to an additional five pounds of resistance, or a total of 10 pounds.
If you are analyzing this as we go, you are beginning to seethe synergistic effects of two forms of exercise being combined into one.

Step 4. If one moves the weights from the shoulders to the waist while sinking into the mat six inches and bouncing off the mat six inches, the weights in the hands move upward a total of approximately 2 feet each bounce.

Remember, the formula for work-produced is weight-times-distance.

Step 5. Assume one bounces six inches off the mat 100 times in a minute, moving the weights 1 foot in a curl exercise. That would be moving 10 pounds x 2 feet x 100 times, or 2000 foot/pounds of work in one minute. … or, if you used 2 pound weights with the same exercise, it would be 4000 foot/pounds of work. . . . or, if you used the three pound weights, 6000 foot/pounds.

That’s three tons of work! The skeptic will say, “That’s impossible,” then go out and lift one-forth of his automobile with a small jack in order to fix a flat.

Step 6. For the purpose of illustration, let’s assume that you use the two pound weights moving them an average of one foot while sinking six inches into the mat and bouncing six inches off the mat. You complete the Daily Dozen (a series of exercises shown in “Harry and Sarah Sneider’s Olympic Trainer”), 25 repetitions, 3 sets. It takes you 20 minutes. This would be the equivalent of moving a 40 ton freight car 1 foot in 20 minutes, or a Volkswagen up 40 steps in 20 minutes, or curling a 100 pound barbell 200 times in 20 minutes!
That’s just calculating the movement of the weights in your hands, what about your body?

Step 7. Assume you weigh 150 pounds and are bouncing high enough to create 2 Gs. At the bottom of the bounce you weigh 300 pounds. Your entire weight is moved upward 1 foot 100 times a minute x 20 minutes, or 600,000 foot/pounds!

That’s the equivalent of moving a 300 ton freight train engine1 foot in 20 minutes! Add that to the 40 ton freight car and you will begin to understand why resistive rebounding is destined to revolutionize our concept of weight training. Granted, the springs in the rebounder do some of the work,but that’s the beauty of it. Your cells can’t tell the difference!

Dr. Kenneth Cooper’s Institute of Aerobics Research Studies Rebounding

Anything as amazing as the reported results of rebound exercise doesn’t stay hidden forever. Those who begin to enjoy the benefits become disciples. They extol the virtues of rebounding, and soon even the most skeptical come around. Scientists are skeptics by profession. Somebody sent copies of my “Miracles” and “Sneider’s Olympic Trainer” to Dr. Kenneth Cooper’s Institute of Aerobics Research in Dallas, Texas. Near the end of 1981, I received a telephone call from R. Donald Hagan, Ph.D, Director of Exercise Physiology, telling me that some of the stories in the “Miracles” were simply too hard to believe. When I told him that they were all true, he asked me, “Are they backed by scientific studies?”

“No.” I said. “I’m not a scientist. I’m merely reporting what I’m learning.”

“Well, we need scientific evidence before we can accept rebound exercise as a viable form of exercise.”

“You’re a scientist aren’t you?” I countered. “Why don’t you study rebound exercise and report back to me? Besides, it will be more credible if you perform the study rather than us.” I received a letter dated December 10, 1981, confirming our conversation, which began, “It has been a pleasure talking to you about rebound exercise. We are preparing a research proposal to study rebound exercise. . . We would be most interested in evaluating the ‘daily dozen charts’ outlined in Dr. Sneider’s book on rebounding, and any other exercise program that you believe people would be interested in knowing about.”

The report of the completed study came across my desk six months later. They must have been impressed because this is the way it started out.

From Well Being Journal Vol. 11, No. 1 ~ Winter 2002

As well as CFS, fibromyalgia and a host of other modern illnesses—and strengthen your immune system at the same time

by Scott E. Miners

You can bypass drugs, surgery, angioplasty or bypass procedures to heal or prevent heart and other modern diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Here is a simple prescription you can use to chelate (pronounced key-late), or cleanse arteriosclerotic blockages, stimulate your immune system and cleanse toxins from the cardiovascular and all cellular systems and organs of the body.

It is not news that living an imbalanced life is stressful to the body. Here the focus is upon the physical body; however, unwholesome spiritual, mental and emotional bodies can be as toxic to your physical body as smoking a pack of cigarettes a day or drinking excessive amounts of alcohol.

Chelation (pronounced key-lay-shun) therapy has proven to be a safe and effective alternative to bypass surgery for atherosclerosis—and it has been shown by research that illnesses traced to toxins in the body, such as cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome, can also be eliminated using chelation therapy. (Elmer Cranton, M.D., Well Being Journal, January/February, 1998.)1

What is chelation therapy? The simplest explanation is that it is a process wherein molecules of toxic debris, such as heavy metals found in accumulations of plaque on artery or vascular linings in the brain and all systems of the body, are bonded with molecules of chelation substances that pull them out of the body. The chelation effect also takes place automatically from natural bodily processes. It is when disease has taken a foothold that you may wish to accelerate or amplify the natural chelation processes of the body. How?

There are many ways to support and accelerate the body’s natural chelation process. Certain foods help the process and some hinder, or are part of the disease creation process throughout the system. Evidence is pointing to foods with additives, hydrogenated oils, simple sugars and carbohydrates, and foods grown with chemicals, pesticides and herbicides as being poor health choices, and of course plentiful research shows toxins in the water and air are also causing a great deal of disease from chemical sensitivities in most human bodies.

SEVERAL SOLUTIONS

Most of us eat conventionally grown foods, lacking in nutrition, rather than organic, and then we don’t drink enough water to flush out the toxins that were used to make the conventional foods grow. The water most of us drink is chlorinated and probably fluoridated. Add to that all of the processed foods sold in the supermarkets, foods with additional chemical additives, flavorings, colorings, sweeteners, salts and artificial sweeteners, and you have toxins entering the body on a constant, daily basis. (Solution: Many people have begun writing to and calling the corporations that produce and market foods asking for organic products; they may boycott conventionally produced foods, or buy only organically produced fruits, vegetables and animals, even driving many miles extra to stores that sell these products.) Why? Organically grown foods, and especially the nutrients and fibers from fruits and vegetables, naturally nourish the body and chelate toxins from it. Most organic growers use strong seed lines, not environmentally (generationally) or genetically modified seeds.

Regarding drinking water, F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., has shown without doubt that the vast majority of us humans have not been drinking enough water.2 Mountain spring water, with its mineralized and magnetic properties, is the best water to drink. Pure artesian water is a second best choice. Pure, vigorous water nourishes and chelates toxins from the body due to its magnetic and trace mineral properties. However, if you are putting too many toxins into the body, it would take far more copious amounts of water to cleanse them out than you or I would wish to drink.3

You may wish to chelate toxins, residues and plaque from your body in a more immediate way if you have an emergency situation, and then gradually include an organic diet to both cleanse and prevent recurrence in the future. What is an immediate, clinical way to chelate, especially in cases of cardiovascular disease?

CLEANSING OUT THE TOXINS

An immediate way to speed the chelation process very dramatically is to go to a clinic as an “out-patient” and have a doctor inject ethylene diamine terra acetic acid (EDTA) into your veins. This is also a natural chelating procedure that specifically targets toxic metals, and it works systemically. It has been proven that EDTA chelation therapy is not only effective, even in “emergency” cases of cardiovascular disease, but also much safer and far less expensive than surgery or angioplasty.1 The staff at the American College for Advancement in Medicine will refer you to medical doctors who practice EDTA chelation therapy nationally: 1-949-583-7666.

Preventive or non-emergency measures also exist for chelating the body. There are “oral chelation” formulas, or supplements that can be taken, and these are available at health stores. Also, large amounts (varying for each individual person) of up to 25,000 mg./day of vitamin C, mineral ascorbate form, is a very effective chelator, as are vitamin E (400-800 IU/day), bilberry and ginkgo biloba, as all are antioxidants. Health-related reference literature is abundant with research studies reporting beneficial results of using these vitamin and nutrient chelators as supplements. Consult your health practitioner if you need assistance in determining amounts for you.

From hereon this article will focus on a form of exercise that has been found remarkably efficient in chelating toxic elements from the body. Journal readers will recognize rebounding and its immune system stimulating and cellular-level toxic debris removing effects from the Fall, 2001 issue of the Journal (“Bouncing for Health”).4

CREATE YOUR OWN CHELATION THERAPY BY REBOUNDING

Dr. Morton Walker, D.P.M., states that exercising on a rebounder (mini-trampoline) causes “a natural process of chelation therapy to proceed throughout the body.” There are many sources indicating the overall health-giving effects of rebounding exercise. (See Well Being Journal , Fall, 2001, for more information.)4 Réné and Maggie Gaudette and the Wonders write: “The protocol [of taking antioxidant supplements and doing rebounding exercise]…eliminates a good portion of cellulite, which is an accumulation of toxins within the fat structure of the body. [Also] that exercise—bouncing up and down on a mini-trampoline—is a good way of loosening up all of that fat structure so that the toxins can be eliminated…. You shake it up and down. Rebounding clears the lymph glands, it provides the aerobic exercise for the heart, it provides oxygenation to the body, it is not destructive to the joints of the body, it loosens the toxins within the subdermal portion of the skin in the body, it allows the body to perspire, it even allows your hair to grow a little longer because when you go up and you come down it pulls the hair out of your scalp. And it tones the muscles. There are many [more] benefits….”3

Dr. Walker writes: “Exercising on a minitrampoline for its beneficial rebounding result enables you to create chelation therapy within your body and brain.” How does chelation take place? First of all, each cell in the body is “exercised” when bouncing up and down. The force of gravity first pulls, then releases each cell, thus stimulating cells to move their fluids and flush out toxic material as well as absorb nutrients. Additionally, the valves in the lymphatic system, the powerful force behind your immune system, open and close and pump lymphatic fluid during bouncing, even with very gentle up and down bouncing movements. The lymph fluid then removes toxins from the body as a whole, and it even produces more white blood cells. Those who have had major illnesses, such as cancer, attribute healing to the use of rebounding once per hour for two to three minutes. White blood cells increase dramatically during a short session of two to three minutes of rebounding.

Albert Carter, who first discovered the rebounding effect in the late 1970s, called it “the most efficient, effective form of exercise yet devised by man.”5 Dr. Walker states that “your whole cardiovascular system becomes stronger even without increasing its heart rate,”5 thus the elderly or ill need not begin vigorously exercising in order to receive chelation or other health benefits from rebounding. One of the many ways rebounding helps chelate toxins from the body and specifically from the cardiovascular system is through the stimulation of production of lactic acid by the muscles.

Lactic acid is a natural by-product of muscular activity. Shirley Vanderbilt writes: “There are elevated levels of lactic acid in muscle tissues after exercise….”6 She cites research by exercise physiologist Dr. George Brooks from the 1980s: “Lactic acid is a key substance for providing energy, disposing dietary carbohydrate, producing blood glucose and liver glycogen…. Lactic acid goes through a chemical cycle ultimately becoming lactate, which can then be transported quickly from the muscle into the blood. Lactate levels in the blood rise during moderate exercise. At the completion of exercise, lactate levels return to normal within an hour. Light exercise is the most effective approach to speed this process. The muscles copiously produce lactic acid during light exercise.”

Dr. Walker notes that lactic acid is a weak organic acid that chelates toxic components. He states, “Because natural lactic acid acts in the same way as does the medical intravenous infusion of the chelating amino acid EDTA, the resulting responses from rebound movements produce numerous therapeutic effects…:

1. They dissolve atherosclerotic plaque attached to the intima (the innermost layer of arteries);

2. They pull [toxins] out of the media layer of blood vessel walls; and

3. They trap the foreign proteins that occupy space between cell membranes and then remove these unwanted proteins for deposition as waste, carrying away also the toxic type of proteins for processing through in the kidneys as urine, through the liver as nitrogenous waste, and then through the bowel as feces.”

Walker cites a study done in Sweden almost twenty-five years ago, where exercise therapists evaluated a group of hospitalized patients whose chief difficulties were palpitations of the heart, breathlessness from cardiovascular inadequacy, peripheral vascular insufficiency indicated by cold hands and feet, dizziness, headaches and deep sighing. He states that “each patient averaged 5.4 symptoms.”

Collectively these patients had been suffering from 150 different clinically recorded ailments, but by the end of the program of rebounding the clinicians found only 21 persisting symptoms; 68 symptoms had diminished and 44 ailments were entirely gone. “The average number of symptoms per patient had dropped from 5.4 to 1.1,” writes Walker. The clinicians at the Karolinska Institute who conducted this investigation concluded that “rebound exercise protects and strengthens the cardiovascular and peripheral vascular systems,” and offsets any potential harm caused by catecholamines, or nerve transmitting chemicals released under stress, that increase blood pressure.

Dr. Walker concludes: “For a sick person who is able to rebound even in the midst of illness, rebounding serves as a physiological antidote to [catecholamines] that act as internal stressors. Besides cellular detoxification and nourishment, rebounding produces a kind of cellular sedative that gives any damaged or sick cells the opportunity to heal themselves.”5

James R. White, Ph.D., an exercise physiologist at the University of California, San Diego, whose research Walker cites, asserts that a rebound exercise program has the following cardiovascular health benefits:

1. Increased strength and size of the left ventricle of the heart;

2. Increased diameter of the heart;

3. Increased diameter of the arteries of the heart;

4. Increased number of latent arteries used for distributing blood to the heart and the rest of the body.

5. Slowdown of the heart rate; and

6. Decreased amount of oxygen needed by the heart.

Rebounding even causes peripheral vascular improvement of occlusive disease by encouraging blood clots in the limbs to dissolve.

Since rebounding also stimulates the immune system through lymphatic fluid drainage and more production of white blood cells—due to the force of gravity pull and then release during the act of jumping—the effects are beneficial not only for the rest of the body, but especially for the blood circulatory system. Walker cites the work of Hitendra H. Shah, M.D. [Dr. Shah strongly recommends rebound exercise. Rebounding, he emphasizes, must be part of any chelation/detoxification program for reaping the optimal advantages of intravenous EDTA chelation therapy], who notes: “Several problems occur when the lymph drainage slows and fluids begin to accumulate around the cells…. Cells are forced to survive in their own waste and toxic byproducts. Such a situation can eventually lead to the degeneration and destruction of organs. For example, poor lymphatic drainage of the extremities can lead to tissue damage and then to poor blood circulation with swelling and pain…. [S]imilar problems can happen in any other organs of the body.”

CONCLUSION

Given the amount of toxins in our water, air and food—and thus entering our bodies—and given the viruses and bacteria we encounter, it is not difficult to understand why doctors and other health professionals not only rebound every day themselves but recommend it to their patients. Rebounding stimulates the immune system like no other form of exercise due to its effects on the lymphatic system; it stimulates cellular cleansing, exercises the musculo-skeletal system, and helps restore bone density—and it is simple, gentle on the joints of the body and an enjoyable! exercise anyone can do. Imagine the potentials, if rebounding alone can help you achieve these kinds of results, if you combine this exercise with drinking plenty of pure mountain spring or artesian water and a wholesome organic food diet (thus helping clean up the “outer” environment too), along with a balanced spiritual, mental, emotional and physical life. It seems it may very well be easier to be healthy than ill.

REFERENCES

1. “Reversing Heart Disease Simply and Naturally,” by Elmer Cranton, M.D., Well Being Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, p. 4, P.O. Box 739, North Bend, WA 98045-0739, 425-888-0375. See article also in “back issues” on the internet at www.wellbeingjournal.com.

2. Your Body’s Many Cries for Water: You Aren’t Sick, You are Thirsty, by F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., Global Health Solutions, Inc., P.O. Box 3189, Falls Church, VA 22043, 703-848-2333, www.watercure.com.

3. Let’s All Get Well Soon , by Réné Gaudette and Maggie McGuffin-Gaudette and the Wonders, page 216; The Wonders Press, Inc., 8361 11th Line, RR 2, Thornton, Ontario, Canada, LOL 2NO.

4. “Bouncing for Health,” by Scott E. Miners, Well Being Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, op cit.

5. “The Internal, Self-Chelation Therapy,” by Morton Walker, D.P.M, in Everything You Should Know about Chelation Therapy , by Dr. Morton Walker and Dr. Hitendra Shah; Freelance Communications, 484 High Ridge Rd., Stamford, CT 06905; $18, includes s/h in U.S.

6. “A New Look at Lactic Acid,” by Shirley Vanderbilt, Massage and Bodywork magazine, October/November 2001, p. 101.